ویژگی های طبیعی ایران [Iran]، زمینه و علت [basis and the cause] این تنوع اجتماعی بود.
جغرافیای طبیعی این سرزمین [this land] یک موزائیک اجتماعی بود.
“Land” in Oxford Advanced Dictionary is used to refer to “a country or region in a way which appeals to the emotions or the imagination”. The first translation by Markaz translators has deleted this “emotional and imaginary” appealing through using “Iran” instead of “the land”. This lexical change could be intentional when put together with other changes. In the translation indicated by number “1” the phrase “as the 1977-1979 revolution unfolded” is translated as “با طلوع انقلاب اسلامی” while in the second translation we see “با وقوع انقلاب 1357″. Such a difference which is caused due to lexical change has originated from ideological differences of the two groups of translators. As it is obvious the words “طلوع” and “وقوع” give the readers absolutely different impression.
In another case we see two different translations for the phrase: “The physical geography of the land”. In the first translation we read: the natural characteristics of Iran [ویژگی های طبیعی ایران] while the same phrase in the second translation has been translated as the natural geography of this land [جغرافیای طبیعی این سرزمین]. What comes to the mind of a reader who is exposed to these two translations of a single text is the fact that the translator or translators in the first group have tried to highlight the importance of “Iran”.
5- Source text
…At the apex were the regional magnates; the chief, (khans), the local notables (a’yans)… (p. 18).
بزرگان محلی که در راس هرم قرار داشتند [were] عبارت بودند [included] از …خوانین، اعیان و تیونداران..
در راس هرم، بزرگان محلی یعنی خانها، اعیان، تیونداران..قرار دارند [are].
The sentence refers to the pyramid of power in Iran which is considered by the Islamic movement as an unjust one. The fact that the first translation takes it as something which belongs to the past (through using the verb were (قرار داشتند)) indicates that this rule does not exist in Iran any more. But the second translation carried out by Ney publication translators used present tense (قرار دارند) for the sentence. Therefore, the translation might be interpreted as if this pyramid is still at work in Iran.
6- Source text:
The camps were headed by either formal leader, kadkhudas… (p. 18, 1st *)
رهبران [leaders of the group] گروه، کدخدایان یا ریش سفیدها بودند.
سرکرده ی [ringleader] هر تیره یا رسما کدخدا یا ریش سفید بود.
Both of the translations have nominalized the verb lead into the noun ringleader. Both groups have tried to make the position bold, and bring it to the foreground through nominalization. The difference, however, lies in the choice of words they have made; the first translation has used the word رهبر which is close to the word leader; But the second group of translators have used the word سرکرده [ringleader] which bears negative connotation and is used for someone who is leading a group of criminals or an illegal group usually. The fact that a negative word is chosen, rather intentionally, refers to the history of khans and chieftains who were removed from the power with the Islamic Revolution. Some of them were even executed for serving Shah. Their image was ruined and words such as one above, were used for them to ascribe negative names to them.
7- Source text:
Communal conflicts (p. 26, 1st paragraph)
ستیزهای غیرطبقاتی [non-class conflicts/ struggles ]
برخوردهای گروهی [group conflicts]
Communal is translated into non-class conflicts [غیرطبقاتی] which, despite the source text, possess class characteristics attributed generally to the social classifications offered by Marx and some other Western philosophers. This translation might probably be the outcome of the Western view of the first translator group to the society. The second group has used the equivalent group for the English term which is almost neutral.
8- Source text:
The modern observer, reacting against contemporary problems (p. 26, 1st *).
پژوهشگر امروزی، که با مسائل جوامع کنونی درگیر [is challenged by] است…
نگرنده امروزی در برخورد [facing …] با مسائل معاصر شاید..
The verb challenge in the first translation is brought to the fore thus highlighted through subordination. As put forward by Fairclough (1995) this could be done with the aim of either moving the informative segment of a sentence to the background to maybe devaluate it or add to the value of the other part of the text. The translation offered by Ney translators (facing the contemporary issues of…) has no instance of either nominalization or subordination.
9- Source text
The fear of uniformity, so real in the contemporary world… (p. 26, 3rd paragraph)
دغدغه وحدت و یکپارچگی ملی، که امروزه اهمیت آشکاری دارد…
ترس از همشکل شدن که در جهان کنونی وجود عینی دارد…
How would a reader feel reading the phrase “دغدغه وحدت و یکپارچگی ملی” in comparison with “ترس از همشکل شدن”? These two translations for the single phrase “The fear of uniformity” indicate an extreme case of lexical change which conveys two different connotations to the reader. In the first translation there is the challenge/issue of national integration [وحدت و یکپارچگی ملی] which is an ideological translation of uniformity.
10- Source text
The problem of anomie, so prevalent in industrial nations, seldom appeared in a country of tightly knit clans, villages… (p. 26, 3rd paragraph).
گسیختگی که ویژگی بارز جوامع صنعتی است [which is the prominent characteristic of the industrialized societies]، در کشوری با طوایف، روستاها، و صنوف سخت همبسته [tightly integrated] به ندرت [rarely] دیده می شود.
مشکل ناهنجاری که در جوامع صنعتی بسیار متداول است [the problem of disorder so widespread in industrialized societies]، در کشوری با طایفه ها، روستاها و … بسیار منسجم کمتر [highly integrated] دیده می شود.
Anomie in the first translation is seen as a characteristic [ویژگی], not a problem, of the industrialized societies; i.e. it is considered as something inner, something inherent, rather than something affecting/troubling those societies. In the second translation it is taken as disorder [ناهنجاری] attributing the state of not having order in, here, a society. The choice of words, thus, is affected by the ideologies of the both translator groups.
4-1-2. Macro-level analysis
The previous section presented the results for the shifts occurred at micro-level in both translations. The present section will discuss the strategies taken by the translators at macro-level. The Markaz publication translators have chosen the book for translation because “it is one of the magnificent books about the history of the contemporary Iran which is written during recent years. The book, as they believe, is unique
with regard to the method, scope and the resources it has taken advantage of. One of the great difficulties of translating this book has been the translation of sentences which have had original Persian version. For this purpose, they’ve had to find the original sentence, source, or saying. Whenever possible, they have tried to refer to the original texts for translating the quotations, sayings, names of places, events, and characters. Whenever they’ve felt that the information is biased, or is not close to the reality, they have tried to change the source relying on other sources. What matters to these group of translators, is to “present the historical events as unbiased as possible” (Firouzmand, Shams-avari, and Shanechi, 2010). They have tried to keep the source content as far as possible, but whenever the source text has provided wrongful information, they have modified it and referred to the original instance in footnotes.
The strategy taken by Golmohammadi and Fattahi for translating the phrases, sentences and quotations quoted from Persian sources, including magazines, newspapers, and Majlis negotiations, the Persian equivalent is preferred to translation of the text. In some cases, Persian sources were quoted so simply and shifted that using the “original Persian quote might have harmed the source text” (Golmohammadi & Fattahi, 2012). In these cases the strategies taken by the translators include: 1- when the original Persian text is found and it is not so different from the English version, it is used for the source text; 2- When no Persian equivalent is found in the original Persian books and media, it is simply translated by the translators; 3- Oversimplified English sentences are translated rather than putting the original Persian equivalent.
Taking an overall look at the results of text analysis, the researcher could acknowledge the presence of the two main categories (lexical and grammatical choices) and their sub-categories (nominalization, positive/negative, tense, etc) in the theoretical framework of Fairclough which provide work for data analysis Among these categories the category of lexical change was seen to be widely employed by the translators. In order to come to a clear picture of the effect of the translators’ ideology on the way they have translated the text, the researcher tried to compare the two translated texts with one another and discuss any possible effects of the translators’ ideology with reference to the translators’ biographies and what they have translated so far. The translation indicated by number “one” is a final product of the attempt of two translators named Ahmad Golmohammadi and Mohamad Ebrahim Fattahi.
4-2-1. CDA at Macro-level
Ahmad Golmohammadi holds an MA in Politics and is an instructor at Allameh University. His publications include: Time and Islam; The Public Bases of the Basij militia and the Islamic Revolution; An Investigation of the Arab minority Residing Israel; Israel: a fragmented society; Relations between Iran and Israel. In “The Public bases of the Basij militia”, Golmohammadi has studied the role played by the Basij formed of the civilian in the success of the 1979 Revolution. “Israel: a fragmented society” is an investigation into the multi-cultural Israel and the problem of identity among the citizens of Israel. “Relations between Iran and Israel” is an article on the history of correspondents and enmity between the two countries which, as he believes, is reinforced by the United States.
Mohamad Ebrahim Fattahi holds a BA in Politics and an MA in International Relations. He is primarily reputed for his translation of The History of Modern Iran which discusses and evaluates the history of the contemporary Iran from Qajars, to the 1st World War and the Islamic Revolution. Other books translated by Fattahi include: A Century of Revolution; Coup d’état (CIA and the Origins of Iran-USA relations); The Historical Patterns of Industrialization.
The second translation being indicated by number “two” is the result of a team work. Three translators named Kazem Firoozmand, Hasan Shams-avari and Mohsen Modir-Shanechi have translated the book. Kazem Firoozmand is mostly interested in philosophy and history. He has translated some books from Marx, Maxim Jonsen, Kant and Rousseau. The Golden Bough is one of his most approved translations which is a comparative study that examines the bases of superstition and religion, the primitive religions. In this book the author tries to show how mankind clings to superstition and magic and then to religion to justify the facts and physical phenomenon around them. Mankind, as the book argues, has left religion behind to find science as the answer to all human questions.
Another book translated by Firoozmand is